Interactions between decarbonization and other mega trends in European regions

April 2024


The challenges facing many European regions today are not entirely new: historical precedents, such as the decline of the coal industry in the German Ruhr region or the closure of steelworks in northern England, have led to significant internal migration in the past. However, globalization has exacerbated this trend since the early 1990s, as industries have relocated to countries with lower costs, leading to job losses and causing workers to seek employment elsewhere. Europe continues to develop and diversify. Understanding megatrends and drawing on historical experience is therefore essential for tackling current challenges and promoting social cohesion, economic prosperity and sustainable development in the 21st century.


  • WiseEuropa Institute