Booklet: The Future of Fossil Fuels

Pathways to Climate Neutrality in Germany and Europe


[Note: Password to access the document: Coaltransitions]

Future of Fossil Fuels in the wake of greenhouse gas neutrality (FFF) is a joint research project consisting of the TU Berlin (WIP, CoalExit Research Group), Potsdam Institute for Climate Change (PIK) and German Institute for Economic Research (DIW). FFF is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) within the framework of the funding priority “Economics of Climate Change”. The project period was from October 2018 until September 2021. The document linked on this page summaries the findings of the project.

The trans- and interdisciplinary research project focused on the decarbonization of the German and European energy sector and analyzed major carbon emitters in European such as Germany, UK, Poland. The research design allowed to examine not only the effects of the decarbonization on the energy system but also social and political aspects of the energy transition. Selected quantitative and qualitative papers derived from the project can be found here.

Recommendations from the FFF project:

  • Action towards a rapid decarbonization should not be postponed any longer
  • Rapidly phase out fossil fuels in Germany and Europe (coal the latest in 2030 to achieve 1.5°C target)
  • More investments needed in renewable energies and energy efficiency
  • End subsidies for fossil fuels
  • Avoid additional investments into fossil fuel (especially natural gas) infrastructure
  • Support regions dependent on fossil fuel production


  • TU Berlin, CoalExit Research Group

  • German Institute for Economic Research Berlin (DIW)

  • Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK)


Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF)